The adaptations are assumed to be in response to the changing weight, posture and balance of the women at that stage. Understanding the changes could be used to help design footwear or physiotherapy to reduce pain caused by the attendant joint redistribution.
There are 3 distinct fracture patterns that affect the base of the fifth metatarsal. Unfortunately, the terminology and descriptions of these injuries remain confusing in the orthopedic literature. Diagnostic clarity is critical as it dictates treatment recommendations and prognosis.
The advent of ankle arthroscopy has eliminated the need for open arthrotomy for a number of disorders ranging from loose bodies, soft tissue impingement, osteochondral lesions, and even some arthrodesis. The critical question in regard to the patient described above is to determine if the lesion is simple impingement or osteoarthritis.